Title

On-Line and Telephone Surveys: The Impact of Survey Mode on Spending Estimates by Participants in a Major Urban Marathon

Document Type

Article

Publication Title

ICHPERD-SD Journal of Research

ISSN

19304595

Volume

2

Issue

1

First Page

27

32

Publication Date

2007

Abstract

Survey research has always been an important tool for those interested in the study of sport. Recent advances in technology have made on-line survey administration particularly attractive compared to traditional data gathering methods. This study presents research undertaken as part of an economic impact analysis of the 2002 Flying Pig Marathon in Cincinnati, Ohio, and tests for significant differences in reported spending between data gathered via a telephone survey and data gathered via on-line survey. Tests indicated that while the two survey methods produced largely similar results, significant differences were found in some spending categories. The analysis concluded that group-size bias in the telephone survey was the main source of reported spending difference. After adjusting for this bias, the on-line approach is at least as effective as the telephone approach when there is strong evidence that the population of interest utilizes e-mail.