The Effects of Seat Location, Ticket Cost, and Team Identification on Sport Fans’ Instrumental and Hostile Aggression
North American Journal of Psychology
The present study investigated whether seat location and ticket cost influence sport fans' instrumental and hostile aggression. College-aged fans imagined attending a sporting event in which the seat location (five rows from the field vs. the upper deck) and ticket cost ($10.00 vs. $75.00) were manipulated. Participants then completed a modified version of the Hostile and Instrumental Aggression of Spectators Questionnaire. Contrary to the hypotheses, seat location and ticket cost did not predict instrumental or hostile aggression, although highly identified fans reported greater intent to aggress than low identifying fans. This effect persisted when controlling for gender differences. Results indicate that sport management should consider gender and individual differences in team identification when attempting to curtail fan aggression.
End, C. M., & Foster, N. (2010). The effects of seat location, ticket cost, and team identification on sport fans’ instrumental and hostile aggression. North American Journal of Psychology, 12(3), 421-432.
End, Christian M. and Foster, N., "The Effects of Seat Location, Ticket Cost, and Team Identification on Sport Fans’ Instrumental and Hostile Aggression" (2010). Faculty Scholarship. Paper 147.